Sunday, May 08, 2022

Consumption of Alcohol Can Increase Glaucoma Odds

 Alcohol has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in a number of ocular diseases, and recent research suggests glaucoma may be one of them. Those with or at risk for glaucoma may benefit from reducing their alcohol consumption.

They found that the group of regular drinkers had a higher IOP than never/infrequent drinkers (+0.15mm Hg). The team also noted non-significant trends in the regular drinker group toward a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), thinner ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and higher odds of glaucoma. Even those who self-identified as former drinkers had higher odds of developing glaucoma (odds ratio: 1.44).

If further studies can confirm that a causal relationship does exist, it may prove beneficial to advise glaucoma patients and those at increased risk to be cognizant of their alcohol intake and aware of its potential effects on disease development.

Original abstract content © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology 2022.

Wednesday, March 17, 2021

Vitamin B Combo Provides Dry Eye Relief


Dry eye symptoms improved significantly following treatment with supplements and artificial tears, study finds.

A new study suggests oral vitamins B1 and mecobalamin, a form of B12, can help relieve symptoms of  dryness, pain and light sensitivity.

“These observations suggest that oral vitamin B1 and mecobalamin can help nourish and repair the corneal nerve layer to some extent, thereby alleviating burning and photophobia,” the study authors concluded in their paper. Of note, oral vitamin B1 and mecobalamin were more effective in men than women, particularly for dryness and photophobia, they wrote.

Ren X, Chou Y, Jiang X, et al. Effects of oral vitamin B1 and mecobalamin on dry eye disease. J Ophthalmol. 2020;2020:9539674.

reported in Review of Optometry

Friday, March 05, 2021

Eye Drop for the Treatment of Presbyopia

 Allergan announced that it has submitted a new drug application to the FDA for investigational AGN-190584 (pilocarpine 1.25%) ophthalmic solution for the treatment of presbyopia. The FDA is expected to act on the NDA by the end of 2021.

If approved, this is expected to be the first eye drop for the treatment of presbyopia by the FDA. The most common treatment emergent non-serious adverse events occurring at a frequency of ≥5% in AGN-190584 treated participants were headache and conjunctival hyperemia.

AGN-190584 is an investigational optimized formulation of pilocarpine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist, which activates the iris sphincter muscle and ciliary muscle. The proposed mechanism of action is through constricting the pupil to enhance the depth of focus. AGN-190584 also contracts the ciliary muscle, facilitating accommodation. 

Tuesday, March 02, 2021

High-dose Sex Steroids Improve Tear Parameters

 Upon examining the effects of exposure to high-dose sex steroid hormones, researchers recently observed impro­vement in tear function test results following the use of estradiol. They noted that the use of estradiol during menopause could improve dry eye symptoms in patients.

Reported in Review of Optometry

Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Post-LASIK Success

Corneal nerves are sometimes cut when the flap is made during LASIK. Fortunately, treatment with a nerve growth factor (NGF) has demonstrated the ability to both stimulate corneal nerve regeneration and potentially treat dry eye, a common postoperative complication of LASIK. Researchers recently studied its effects and found that NGF had “an obvious effect” on nerve repair and a potential for improvement of dry eye symptoms.

The researchers concluded that topically administered NGF promoted corneal sensitivity, nerve regeneration and improved dry eye symptoms after LASIK.

Gong Q, Zhang S, Jiang L, et al. The effect of nerve growth factor on corneal nerve regeneration and dry eye after LASIK. Exp Eye Res 2021;203:108428.

Reported in Review of Optometry

Lubricant Targets Digital Eyestrain


Allergan’s latest Refresh product combats the effects of reduced blink rate.

Allergan, which recently launch a topical lubricant called Refresh Digital to combat digital eyestrain.  Americans spend about 13 hours per day on some type of digital device, and this tends to reduce blink rates by as much as half. The result: some combination of dryness, burning, irritation and discomfort.

Many people have simply learned to live with this experience, thinking it’s an inevitable consequence of digital technology. Allergan believes they could get relief from Refresh Digital, which it says is formulated to specifically relieve dryness and irritation that may occur from excessive screen time. It contains a glycerin-based solution intended to enable hydration and maintain the volume of cells on the ocular surface. Allergan calls this HydroCell and says it supports all three layers of the tear film to keep eyes hydrated. 

Refresh Digital is available in both preserved, multidose bottles and preservative-free, single-use vials. For more information, visit

Monday, February 22, 2021

Home Confinement Induces Myopic Shift in Children

 From Review of Optometry:

Spending less time outdoors and more time looking at screens during prolonged school closures brought on by the pandemic, school-aged children are at risk of experiencing a substantial myopic shift due to the home confinement resulting from COVID-19, according to a new study published in JAMA Ophthahlmology.

“Younger (aged six to eight years) children’s refractive status may be more sensitive to environmental changes than older children, given that they are in an important period for the development of myopia,” the researchers wrote in their paper.

The researchers noted a substantial shift in myopia prevalence in the 2020 screenings compared with preceding years for younger children (Table 1). These differences were minimal in children aged nine to 13 years.

Diabetes Drug Protects Against AMD

Reported in Review of Optometry:

Researchers recently studied the use of metformin for AMD and deemed it a potential preventive therapy for the disease. 

Researchers found that metformin use was associated with a reduced odds of developing AMD and that this association was dose-dependent. Low to moderate doses of metformin had the greatest benefit. 

The researchers concluded that metformin may reduce the odds of AMD development, with low to moderate doses having the largest effect. They cautioned, however, that metformin doesn’t appear to be protective in patients with diabetes and coexisting DR. 

Alcohol Consumption Reduces Need for Cataract Surgery

Reported in Review of Optometry:

People who partake in low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, specifically red wine, may be at a lower risk of needing cataract surgery, a new study suggests.

Compared with those who abstained from alcohol, drinkers were less likely to undergo cataract surgery. Among alcohol consumers, greater alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of cataract surgery.

High-dose Sex Steroids Improve Tear Parameters

 This news reported in Review of Optometry

Researchers recently observed that the use of estradiol during menopause could improve dry eye symptoms in patients.Tear break up time and Schirmer's testing were significantly higher with ovulation induction.

The study authors wrote in their paper. “In our study, high levels of estrogen in the reproductive age group exerted positive effects on tear parameters.”

Thursday, June 18, 2020


According to this article in Review of Optometry:

"high doses of oral riboflavin combined with sunlight can stabilize the cornea similarly to treatment with CXL. One study evaluated topographic corneal changes in three individual cases of patients ingesting 400mg to 800mg of riboflavin supplements daily.1 Researchers observed corneal flattening and improved visual acuity in each case—similar outcomes to CXL."

Monday, June 08, 2020


This study concluded:

multiple dietary supplement containing lutein, astaxanthin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and DHA has effect to improve accommodative ability and subjective symptoms related to eye fatigue.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Mirtogenol® and Glaucoma


After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow improved.
The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow.