This interesting study in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science assessed the relationship between vitamin D and refractive error in Korean adolescents. 

The myopia group had a significant positive relationship between refractive error and serum vitamin D concentration, whereas the non-myopia group did not have any significant relationship.  In multiple linear regression analyses, refractive error was significantly associated with low serum vitamin D concentration after adjustment for area of residence, parental income, total energy intake, dietary Ca intake, milk consumption and smoking experience. The prevalence of high myopia was significantly associated with the lowest concentration of serum vitamin D after adjustment for the confounding factors. Smoking experience showed inverse associations with both refractive error and the prevalence of high myopia.  Conclusions: Low serum vitamin D concentration was associated with myopia prevalence in Korean adolescents. This relationship was particularly notable in adolescents with high myopia.


  1. It's well known that myopia is correlated with less time outdoors in the sun. Therefore the lower vitamin D may just be a reflection of the lower sunlight exposure.


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