Pediatric Emergency Care:
February 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 2 - pp 118-120
According to this study,
No child suffering from accidental head injury was found to have retinal hemorrhages nor was any found to have experienced child abuse. Therefore, we can be confident to an upper limit of 95% that the chance of retinal hemorrhages occurring as a result of accidental traumatic event alone is at the most 0.028.
Conclusions: Apparent life-threatening events alone are unlikely to cause retinal hemorrhages in children younger than 2 years. Therefore, if retinal hemorrhages are detected, investigation into the possibility of nonaccidental injury is essential.